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We all know, we are able to see any object because light gets reflected and comes into our eyes and this is the reason we see objects and things around us. This is what ray optics is, the study where we find the path of light and how it gets reflected or refracted, all these phenomenon comes under the topic ray optics.

Well before getting straight into the topic, first, let me tell you what you are going to learn in this article. We will give you all the important topics and derivation from this chapter for your boards of class 12 and will explain the basics of it.

On top of that, we will also provide you with our personal handwritten notes and let me tell you they are very in-depth notes with all the details and things you will need for your class 12 boards

What is ray optics ?

Ray of light represents the direction of propagation of light energy which means in ray optics lines we draw to represent the light and path they travel.

We use certain phenomena in ray optics such as reflection and refraction to find the path travelled by the light and what image it will form.


When light waves hit an object and it gets bounced-back without getting absorbed by an object this is known as reflection.


All the details regarding reflection and all the other things you will need for your class 12th board is present in our notes below so do check them.


Refraction is a phenomenon of light in which light entering from one medium to another, changes the direction at the end of incidence on interference.


Important topics:

Important topics from Ray optics for boards are lens, ray diagram, lens maker formula, magnification, telescope, microscope and prism.

For 1 marker and MCQ for class 12 boards, conceptual questions from these topics as well as Lens law and image-based questions can be asked.

All these topics are provided in the notes given below, they are highly in-depth class 12 physics notes of Ray optics so refer to them, it’s more than enough for boards.

Handwritten notes:

This article is a brief summary of chapter 9, Ray Optics for all the derivation related to this chapter and other important things. I have prepared my special handwritten notes. These notes have all the derivation of this chapter and important topics for your board exam 🙂

So do read these notes if you are a class 12th student and preparing for your board exam. These notes are easy to understand. To download them CLICK HERE.

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  1. Thanks for appreciating and we are really sorry for the clarity. We tried to provide the best in whatever equipments is available to us. I hope you undertsand. We will surely try to upgrade it in advance and will provide more better clarity in future.

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