We sometimes don’t remember small difference between things and if it is something related to Biology then everything is jumbled in my mind, but you don’t need to worry about it. In this article, I’ll be stating few differences between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell so it’s easy for you too.
What is Prokaryotic Cell ?
Prokaryotic cells are small, simple and the most primitive type of cells. These were the first to come into existence 3.5 billion years ago. The size of these cells ranges from 100nm to 500mm. They are known for your their rapid rate of multiplication which is more than eukaryotic cells.
Examples of prokaryotic cells are – Blue-Green Algae (BGA), Mycoplasma, Rickettsiae, Spirochaetes, etc.. There two ways by which these cells can be classified – On the basis of size and Gram stain. If the cells pick up gram stain that means they are gram positive and the rest are gram negative.
Related article: Prokaryotic Cell and its Ultrastructure
There are four forms which are as follows:
- Cocci – These are spherical or ovoid shaped found in groups of two or in chains of many cells.
- Bacilli – These are rod shaped which are single at start but once they start to divide they form may clusters of two. If there are more than two cells in the cluster, they are recognised as Streptobascilli.
- Vibrios – These cells are slightly curved which makes them look like a comma (,).
- Spirilla – These cells are long and twisted. Sometimes they coil like a screw.
What is Eukaryotic Cell ?
The eukaryotic cell is larger and ten times more greater in dimension than the prokaryotic cell. These are true cells which occurs in plants (from Algae to Angiosperms) to animals (from Protozoa to Mammalia). It has an organised nucleus unlike prokaryotic cell. They show presence of cell organelles and are covered with several layers of membrane.
These cells are different in shape, size and physiology but there are certain things which are common in them such as – plasma membrane, cytoplasm and its organelles like mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, golgi apparatus, etc. and a true nucleus.
The nucleus contains – DNA, RNA, nucleoproteins and nucelolus which is separated from the cytoplasm by a thin, perforated nuclear membrane. Since these cells are present in both plants and animals they still are not the same. The animal cell lacks rigid cell wall hence they are irregular in shape.
Difference Between Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell:
|Prokayotic Cell||Eukaryotic Cell|
|Nucleus is absent||Nucleus is present|
|These are smaller in size||There are larger in size|
|They have a simple structure||They have a complex structure|
|Cytoskeleton is absent||Cytoskeleton is present|
|They have a single origin of replication||They have multiple origin of replication|
|Membrane bound organelles are absent||Membrane bound organelles are present|
|The structure of DNA is double-stranded circular||The structure of DNA is double-stranded linear|
|The ribosomes are smaller and spherical||The ribosomes are larger and linear|
|Mitochondria is absent||Mitochondria is present|
|Cytoplasm is present but cell organelles are absent||Cytoplasm is present and cell organelles are also present|
|Endoplasmic reticulum is absent||Endoplasmic reticulum is present|
|Plasmids are present||Plasmids are rarely found|
|The number of chromosome is one but its not true chromosome||The number of chromosomes is more than one|
|Golgi apparatus is absent||Golgi apparatus is present|
|Pili and Fimbriae may be present||Pili and Fimbriae are absent|
|Peroxisomes and lysosomes are absent||Peroxisomes and lysosomes are present|
|They are unicellular||They are mostly multicellular and some are unicellular|
|They are chemically complex||They are chemically simple|
|They reproduce asexually||They reproduce sexually and asexually|
|Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm||Transcription occurs in the nucleus|
|Cell division takes place through binary fission||Cell division takes place through mitosis|
|The permeability of nuclear membrane is absent||The permeability of nuclear membrane is selective|
|They have smaller flagella||They have larger flagella|
|Eg, Bacteria, Archaea||Eg, Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists|